The great Indian, Statesman, Economist,Politician, Loyal advisor-Chanakya The Great ~ SAMPATKUMARI'S Blog "PARISHKAR"

The great Indian, Statesman, Economist,Politician, Loyal advisor-Chanakya The Great

The great Indian, Statesman, Economist,Politician, Loyal advisor-Chanakya The Great - There was a famous Acharya(Professor)  named Chanak in Patliputra(Present Day Patana. It is believed that Acharya Chanak had hand written documenys(On Bhoj patra the skins of trees used as trees as there were no papers in those days). His wife gave birth to a male child in 370 BC. It is said that at the time of birth, the child had all 32 teeth fully developped and the astrologers said that this is not a good sign and his teeth must me removed but Acharya Chanak refused to accept the proposal of astrologers and named the child Vishnu Gupta. This child later became a famous acharya(professor) and Head of the department of Econoics and Politics at the then Texla University and a leading character in war against Alexander the great deprive of notorious nand empire of Magadh and most  important work of Aharya Chanakya is unification of the then split in Janapads, india and establishing a powerful empire under the kingdom of King Chandragupta Mourya of which he was the Prime Minister.
The great Indian, Statesman, Economist,Politician, Loyal advisor-Chanakya The Great
The great Indian, Statesman, Economist,Politician, Loyal advisor-Chanakya The Great

Important Information about Chanakya

1-    Birth Name                  :Vishnu Gupt
2-    Father’s name             :Acharya Chanak
3-    Birth                               :370 BC
4-    Death                             :283 BC
5-    Education at                :Takshashila
6-    Alma mater                   :Takshashila
7-    Profession                    :Head of the department of Political Science
                                             Takshashila University and later Prime Minister
                                             (Maha Amatya/Mahamantri of The Great King
                                             Chandra Gupta Mourya and Bindusar
8-    Known for                     :Leading the war against Alexander’s  , Founder of Mouryan Empire in   
                                               India and unification of India
9-    Notable Works             :Arthshastra and Chanakya neeti
10-Religion                         :Hindu

Chanakya was originally a professor of economics and political science at the ancient Takshashila University. He successfully   managed the first Mouryan Emperor Chandra Gupta’s rise to power at a very young age. He is widely credited for having played an important role in the establishment of the Maurya Empire, which was the first empire in archaeologically recorded history to rule most of the Indian subcontinent. Chanakya served as the Prime Minister(Maha Amatya/Maha Mantri to both Chandragupta and his son Bindusar.

Chanakya is traditionally identified as Kautilya or Vishnu Gupta, who authored the ancient Indian political treatise called Arthashastra As such, he is considered as the pioneer of the field of economics and Political Science in India, and his work is thought of as an important precursor to Classical Economics Chanakya is often called the "Indian Machiavelli although his works predate Machiavelli's by about 1,800 years. His works were lost near the end of the Gupta Dynasty and later rediscovered by 1915.
To ones astonishment, tips and tricks of the ultra modern espionage, intelligence are still based on the tricks of Chanakya.
Why Kautilya- Chanakya him self admitted that I am honest with the honest and Vajra Kutil(Cunning) with the Kutil, thus he was nicknamed Kautilya.
Why Chanakya- His father’s name was acharya Chanak and in those days there was a tradition that a son  to bear the title in the name of his father, thus Chanak’s son Chanakya.
Birth-Chanakya's birthplace is a matter of controversy, and there are multiple theories about his origin. According to the Buddhist text Mahavamsa Tika, his birthplace was Takshshila The Jain scriptures, such as Adbidhana Chintamani, mention him as a Dramila, implying that he was a native of South India. According to the Jain writer Hemchandra’s Parishishtaparva, Chanakya was born in the Canaka village of the Golla region, to a Jain Brahmin named Canin and his wife Canesvari Other sources mention his father's name as Chanak and state that Chanakaya's name derives from his
father's name.Early life -Chanakya was educated at Takshshila an ancient centre of learning located in north-western ancient India (present-day Pakistan) He later became a teacher (acharya) at the same place. Chanakya's life was connected to two cities: Takshashila and Patliputra (present-day Patna in Bihar, India). Pataliputra was the capital of the Magadh kingdom, which was connected to Takshashila by the northern high road of commerce.Identitification with Kautilya or Vishnugupta-The ancient treatise Arthashastra has been traditionally attributed to Chanakya by a number of scholars. The Arthashastra identifies its author by the name Kautilya, except for one verse that refers to him by the name Vishnugupta Kautilya is presumably the name of the author's Gotra/Clan.

One of the earliest Sanskrit literature to identify Chanakya with Vishnugupta explicitly was Vishnu Sharma’s Panchtantra in the 3rd century BC.

K.C. Ojha puts forward the view that the traditional identification of Vishnugupta with Kautilya was caused by a confusion of the text's editor and its originator. He suggests that Vishnugupta was a redactor of the original work of Kautilya. Thomas Burrow goes even further and suggests that Chanakya and Kautilya may have been two different people.Role in the fall of the Nanda empire -Chankaya and Chandragupta have been credited with defeating the powerful Nanda Empire and establishing the new Maurya Empire.

Mudrarakshasa("The Signet of the Minister"), a play dated variously from the late 4th century to the early 8th century, narrates the ascent of Chandragupta Maurya to power: Sakatala, an unhappy royal minister, introduced Chanakya to the Nanda king, knowing that Chanakya would not be treated well in the court. Insulted at the court, Chanakya untied theSikha(Choti) (lock of hair) and swore that he would not tie it back till he destroyed the Nanda kingdom. According to Mudrarakshasa, Chandragupta was the son of a royal concubine named Mura and spent his childhood in the Nanda palace. Chanakya and Chandragupta signed a pact with Parvataka (identified witt King Poras by some scholars) of north-west India that ensured his victory over the Nanda empire. Their combined army had Shaka,Yavana(Greek), Kirata, Kamboja and Vahlik soldiers. Following their victory, the territories of the Nanda empire were divided between Parvataka and Chanakya's associate Chandragupta.
However, after Parvataka's death, his son Malayaketu sought control of all the former Nanda territories. He was supported by Rakshasaa, the former Nanda minister, several of whose attempts to kill Chandragupta were foiled by Chanakya. As part of their game plan, Chanakya and Chandragupta faked a rift between themselves. As a sham, Chandragupta removed Chanakya from his ministerial post, while declaring that Rakshasa is better than him. Chanakya's agents in Malayaketu's court then turned the king against Rakshasa by suggesting that Rakshasa was poised to replace Chanakya in Chandragupta's court. The activities by Chanakya's spies further widened the rift between Malayaketu and Rakshasa. His agents also fooled Malayaketu into believing that five of his allies were planning to join Chandragupta, prompting Malayaketu to order their killings. In the end,
Rakshasa ends up joining Chandragupta's side, and Malayaketu's coaliation is completely undone by Chanakya's strategy.

According to the Buddhist texts, Chandragupta was the son of the chief of the Moriya clan of Pippalivana. Chanakya once saw him leading a band of local youth and was highly impressed. He picked Chandragupta as the leader of the anti-Nanda revolt.

Several modern adaptions of the legend narrate the story of Chanakya in a semi-fictional form, extending these legends. In Chandragupta (1911), a play by Dwijiendralal Ray, the Nanda king exiles his half-brother Chandragupta, who joins the army of Alexander the great, Later, with help from Chanakya and Katyayan (the former Prime Minister of Magadha), Chandragupta defeats Nanda, who is put to death by Chanakya.

Twenty-first-century works such as Chanakya (2001) by B. K. Chaturvedi andChanakya’s Chant (2010) by Ashwin Sanghi also present semi-fictional narratives of Chanakya's life. According to these, Chanakya's father Chanak was a friend of Shaktar, the Prime Minister of the Magadha kingdom, and Chanakya loved Shaktar's daughter Suvashini. Shaktar had lost much of his political clout to another courtier called Rakshasa, and one night, Shaktar was imprisoned by the King Dhana Nanda. The rivalry of the Chanakya's family with King Dhana Nanda started when Chanak openly criticised the misrule of the king. After the execution of Chanak by the King, the former Magadha minister Katyayan sent Chanakya to Acharya Pundarikaksha of Takshashila. Chanakya completed his education at Takshashila and became a teacher there. After some years, he returned to Pataliputra to meet his mother, only to learn that she was dead. He also learnt that the Nanda administration had further deteriorated under the growing influence of Rakshasa, who had made Suvashini his mistress. When Chanakya visited the royal court to advise him, he was insulted and imprisoned by the king. Chanakya was rescued by the men of General Maurya, another person who despised with the king's rule. Chanakya took Chandragupta Maurya to Takshashila, where he trained the young man. King Ambhi the ruler of Takshashila, had allied with the invader Alexander the Great to defeat Parvataka. Chanakya and Chandragupta gathered a band of people discontented with Ambhi's rule and formed an alliance with Parvataka to defeat the Nanda king. Their initial attempts at conquering Magadha were unsuccessful. Once, Chanakya came across a mother scolding her child for burning himself by eating from the middle of a bowl of porridge rather than the cooler edge. Chanakya realised  his initial strategic error: he was attacking Magadha, the center of the Nanda territory. He then changed his strategy and focused on capturing the areas located at the peripharies of the Nanda empire. With help from Suvashini, he drove a wedge between the king and Rakshasa. Finally, he defeated the last Nanda king and established a new empire with Chandragupta Maurya as the emperor.
After the establishment of the Maurya Empire-Chanakya continued to serve as an advisor to Chandragupta after the establishment of the Maurya Empire. According to a popular legend mentioned in the Jain texts, Chanakya used to add small doses of poison to the food eaten by Emperor Chandragupta Maurya in order to make him immune to the poisoning attempts by the enemies. Unaware, Chandragupta once fed some of his food to his queen, Durdhara, who was seven days away from delivery. The queen, not immune to the poison, collapsed and died within a few minutes. In order to save the heir to the throne, Chanakya cut the queen's belly open and extracted the foetus just as she died. The baby was named Bindusara, because he was touched by a drop (bindu) of blood having poison.
When Bindusara was in his youth, Chandragupta gave up the throne and followed the Jain saint Bhadrabahu to present day Karnataka and settled in the place of Shravana Belagola. He lived as an ascetic for some years and died of voluntary starvation according to Jain tradition. Chanakya meanwhile stayed in the court as an advisor to Bindusara.

Death of Chanakya

 The real cause of Chanakya's death is unknown and disputed. According to one legend, he retired to the forest(jungle) and starved himself to death. According to another legend mentioned by the Jain writer Hemchandra, Subandhu, one of Bindusara's ministers, did not like Chanakya. One day he told Bindusara that Chanakya was responsible for the murder of his mother. Bindusara asked the nurses, who confirmed the story of his birth. Bindusara was horrified and enraged. Chanakya, who was an old man by this time, learnt that the King was angry with him, he decided to end his life. In accordance with the Jain tradition, he decided to starve himself to death. By this time, the King learnt the full story: Chanakya was not directly responsible for his mother's death, which was an accident. He asked Subandhu to convince Chanakya to give up his plan to kill himself. However, Subandhu, pretending to conduct a ceremony for Chanakya, burnt Chanakya alive.


7 comments:

  1. Nice post, Thanks a lot to share with us. Searching for jobs Ind Govt Jobs.

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  2. THE AUTHOR HAS GIVEN A COMPREHENSIVE INFORMATION. HIS EFFORT OF COLLECTING SUCH AN INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES IS TO BE APPRECIATED

    ReplyDelete
  3. The effort of the writer is admirable. The great Chanakya is honoured world wide not only in India

    ReplyDelete
  4. The author has don good research on the topic to give details. Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  5. A great, very interesting article on the greatest hero, the responsible subject for the unification of the then scattered india

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  6. The narration is good. Mudrarakshasa("The Signet of the Minister"), a play dated variously from the late 4th century to the early 8th century,also says the same thing

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